This section of the report contains a set of objectives, strategies, and actions in support of a holistic, adaptive approach to floodplain management, meant to provide a framework for future coastal flood risk policy and management program development. These objectives, strategies, and actions are consistent with the management principles section of this report.


1. Increase state coastal flood risk management capacity


1.1. Objective - Increase and enhance federal financial and technical assistance programs


1.1.1. Strategy - Further progress towards centralized, easily distributed risk information

1.1.1.1. Action - Provide sufficient funding to update and digitize existing NFIP FIRMs and expand map coverage

1.1.1.2. Action - Support and develop initiatives that provide flood risk visualization tools and data on a national level


1.1.2. Strategy - Structure assistance programs in a manner that augments state management capacity without diminishing state responsibilities

1.1.2.1. Action - Ensure that federal assistance programs do not infringe upon operation and maintenance responsibilities for state water resource infrastructure projects

1.1.2.2. Action - Increase investment in flood risk planning, training, and education assistance provided to states to prevent future depence on federal disaster recovery programs


1.1.3. Strategy - Allow for flexibility in the use of assistance at the state level

1.1.3.1. Action - Incorporate a broad range of management activities that qualify under flood risk assistance programs

1.1.3.2. Action - Reduce administrative barriers to state and local use of federal financial assistance through mechanisms such as revolving funds or pass-through grant programs


1.2. Objective - Improve coordination mechanisms between coastal states and federal agencies


1.2.1. Strategy - Emphasize partnerships between federal and state entities in coastal flood risk management projects

1.2.1.1. Action - Develop and enhance initiatives that assist state and local entities in taking advantage of existing federal assistance opportunities


1.2.2. Strategy - Prevent federal actions from undermining existing state regulations

1.2.2.1. Action - Include provisions in federal programs that require any federal actions taken to be consistent with current coastal flood risk management regulations at the state level


1.3. Objective - Address funding challenges for long-term flood risk planning and mitigation


1.3.1. Strategy - Develop additional consistent, long-term funding mechanisms for state management programs involved in coastal flood risk management.

1.3.1.1. Action - Establish congressional funding mechanisms that account for timelines necessary for long-term planning and mitigation efforts

1.3.1.2. Action - Reduce inconsistencies in annual funding of risk mitigation programs that can hinder planning efforts


1.4. Objective - Create incentives for state coastal flood risk management growth at federal level


1.4.1. Strategy - Incentivize initial establishment of flood risk management practices

1.4.1.1. Action - Encourage growth of flood risk management practices by incorporating NFIP participation as a requirement for a broad range of assistance programs in threatened areas


1.4.2. Strategy - Incentivize adoption of standards beyond NFIP minimums

1.4.2.1. Action - Reduce barriers to entry for the Community Rating System and increase assistance efforts designed to guide communities though the application process


1.5. Objective - Develop and enhance existing state coastal flood risk management capabilities


1.5.1. Strategy - Expand areas under jurisdiction of CZM programs to encompass complete influence of land use on coastal areas

1.5.1.1. Action - Ensure that formal definitions of the coastal zone incorporate upland areas as appropriate and are sufficiently flexible to address changes in land use outside existing program jurisdiction


1.5.2. Strategy - Broaden CZM enforceable policies to incorporate full spectrum of actions that can influence coastal hazards

1.5.2.1. Action - Include enforceable policies that specifically address coastal hazards as well as policies that are broad enough to encompass a variety of federal actions in coastal areas


1.5.3. Strategy - Provide mechanisms for local implementation of CZM program goals and strategies

1.5.3.1. Action - Develop and enhance state grant programs that incorporate management principles of state CZM programs into projects at the local scale

1.5.3.2. Action - Explore implementation of local programs that accept coastal management responsibilities at a smaller scale with oversight from state CZM programs


1.5.4. Strategy - Reduce reliance on federal standards and methodology

1.5.4.1. Action - Develop and enhance state-specific methodology and performance standards for actions in coastal areas


2. Develop alternatives to structural coastal flood risk mitigation measures


2.1. Objective - Reduce barriers to the implementation of non-structural coastal flood risk mitigation measures


2.1.1. Strategy - Improve permitting processes for non-structural mitigation approaches

2.1.1.1. Action - Ensure that a broad range of non-structural flood risk mitigation measures qualify as eligible activities under state and federal mitigation assistance programs

2.1.1.2. Action - Incorporate flexibility into administrative rules related to green infrastructure and non-structural flood risk mitigation strategies

2.1.1.3. Action - Incorporate metrics of natural and beneficial functions into wetland and coastal area mitigation standards and criteria

2.1.1.4. Action - Streamline the use of ecological services in traditional benefit-cost analyses when evaluating flood risk mitigation options

2.1.1.5. Action - Ensure that state CZM programs include enforceable policies that address green infrastructure and non-structural flood risk mitigation


2.1.2. Strategy - Develop and enhance assistance programs related to non-structural flood risk mitigation and green infrastructure

2.1.2.1. Action - Promote non-structural flood risk mitigation within assistance program guidance documents

2.1.2.2. Action - Enhance aspects of technical assistance programs that address non-structural flood risk management project implementation

2.1.2.3. Action - Increase financial support for non-structural flood risk mitigation through grant programs and the use of financial incentives within assistance programs


2.2. Objective - Increase the use of coastal area habitat preservation and restoration as a coastal flood risk mitigation measure


2.2.1. Strategy - Formally recognize the flood risk mitigation benefits of coastal habitat preservation and restoration

2.2.1.1. Action - Allow coastal area easement purchases to qualify as a flood risk mitigation measure under technical and financial assistance programs

2.2.1.2. Action - Include the protection of coastal area natural and beneficial functions as a standard component of water resource infrastructure management

2.2.1.3. Action - Include coastal area preservation and restoration measures within published best-management practices for floodplain, stormwater, and erosion management

2.2.1.4. Action - Provide information on the protective functions of natural features within rules and regulations documents to guide permitting practices


2.2.2. Strategy - Fully leverage the numerous federal and state programs that contain coastal restoration components

2.2.2.1. Action - Provide information on non-structural flood risk mitigation practices across all programs that may influence coastal flood risk

2.2.2.2. Action - Coordinate coastal and riverine vegetation conservation activities across multiple federal and state programs


2.3. Objective - Reduce shoreline hardening in coastal areas


2.3.1. Strategy - Establish non-structural solutions and green infrastructure as a first choice for coastal flood risk mitigation

2.3.1.1. Action - Implement rules and regulations that require the use of green infrastructure where practicable, considering a built solution only after non-structural options have been evaluated

2.3.1.2. Action - Implement restrictions on the use of coastal armoring within ecologically valuable coastal areas and require sufficient mitigation efforts to offset the impacts of such projects

2.3.1.3. Action - Incorporate non-structural coastal flood risk mitigation strategies in long-term climate adaptation plans


2.3.2. Strategy - Prioritize protection of native vegetation

2.3.2.1. Action - Incorporate shoreline setbacks and additional construction and siting criteria for activities within sensitive coastal environments

2.3.2.2. Action - Restrict shoreline uses to those which depend upon close proximity to water and coastal environments using comprehensive evaluations


3. Develop and enhance long-term coastal flood risk planning and adaptation


3.1. Objective - Expand coastal flood risk management planning horizons


3.1.1. Strategy - Incentivize long-term planning efforts

3.1.1.1. Action - Incorporate long-term planning efforts into technical assistance programs with specific guidance on implementing future risk projections

3.1.1.2. Action - Enhance financial incentives for long-term flood risk planning at the state and local level through FEMA’s Community Rating System and similar programs


3.1.2. Strategy - Develop sustainable funding mechanisms for long-term adaptation efforts

3.1.2.1. Action - Ensure that long-term risk planning efforts funded through congressional appropriations are consistently supported through project implementation

3.1.2.2. Action - Enhance support of activities that permanently reduce coastal flood risk such as easement purchases in highly vulnerable areas


3.2. Objective - Integrate projected future conditions and risk factors into coastal flood risk management policies and programs


3.2.1. Strategy - Standardize future risk adaptation approaches

3.2.1.1. Action - Increase availability of future risk information through widely used planning products such as NFIP FIRMs

3.2.1.2. Action - Address future conditions and changes in flood risk in broad-reaching efforts such as permitting programs and planning criteria

3.2.1.3. Action - Develop and publish future risk projections and scenarios at state, regional, and local levels

3.2.1.4. Action - Develop procedures and guidelines for obtaining and incorporating best-available science on future conditions into coastal flood risk adaptation efforts

3.2.1.5. Action - Formally acknowledge flood risks due to changing conditions in official documentation such as hazard mitigation plans


3.2.2. Strategy - Develop and enhance state and local future coastal flood risk adaptation efforts

3.2.2.1. Action - Develop state and regional adaptation initiatives that address specific risks and contain implementation strategies for coastal areas

3.2.2.2. Action - Further incorporate freeboard and shoreline setbacks beyond federal minimums into coastal flood risk management regulations

3.2.2.3. Action - Adopt legislation related to future flood risk adaptation with formally defined departmental responsibilities and implementation procedures


4. Balance investment in disaster recovery and flood risk mitigation


4.1. Objective - Reduce reliance on disaster recovery programs to address coastal flood events


4.1.1. Strategy - Address subsidies that mask the true cost of development in high-hazard coastal areas

4.1.1.1. Action - Move NFIP rates towards full risk rates in high-hazard coastal areas

4.1.1.2. Action - Expand NFIP coverage in areas not currently within mapped floodplains where risk of flooding is still present

4.1.1.3. Action - Factor the residual risk of dam structures into flood insurance purchase requirements and rates


4.1.2. Strategy - Limit public infrastructure investments in high-hazard coastal areas

4.1.2.1. Action - Consider future risks due to changing conditions in coastal areas when determining infrastructure locations

4.1.2.2. Action - Consider potential future development incentives in high-hazard coastal areas that may be influenced by infrastructure investments

4.1.2.3. Action - Develop enforceable policies within state CZM programs that limit public expenditures on infrastructure in high-hazard coastal areas


4.2. Objective - Foster proactive mitigation practices in coastal areas


4.2.1. Strategy - Incentivize mitigation that avoids repeat future flood losses in high-hazard coastal areas

4.2.1.1. Action - Implement favorable cost-share adjustments within mitigation programs for applicants that have experienced multiple previous losses

4.2.1.2. Action - Develop and enhance robust land-acquisition programs targeting high-hazard coastal areas

4.2.1.3. Action - Develop formal guidance at the state and local level related to managed retreat from vulnerable coastal areas

4.2.1.4. Action - Include structure relocation as a flood hazard reduction measure within flood risk management legislation and guidance


4.2.2. Strategy - Encourage avoided impacts over compensatory mitigation practices in coastal areas

4.2.2.1. Action - Adopt mitigation sequences that give preference to avoiding or minimizing impacts to coastal ecosystems

4.2.2.2. Action - Include formal goals related to preserving the natural character of coastal ecosystems within flood risk management legislation and program guidance

4.2.2.3. Action - Develop mitigation performance standards and criteria based on impacts to ecological functions


5. Adopt a more holistic approach to coastal flood risk management


5.1. Objective - Improve coordination of flood risk management efforts at multiple levels of government


5.1.1. Strategy - Develop and enhance mechanisms for cooperation in flood risk management between local, state, and federal agencies

5.1.1.1. Action - Build collaborative management platforms into flood risk management programs through formal councils, work groups, or partnerships dedicated to coordinated management of coastal areas

5.1.1.2. Action - Include intergovernmental coordination as a formal goal within policies and programs that have a nexus to coastal flood risk management


5.1.2. Strategy - Reduce flood risk management challenges that stem from complicated administrative structures

5.1.2.1. Action - Develop dedicated assistance programs specifically designed to aid those navigating federal, state, and local flood risk management program frameworks

5.1.2.2. Action - Streamline flood risk management standards across levels of government, and align standards with criteria related to eligibility for federal assistance programs


5.2. Objective - Leverage the flood risk management benefits of activities across programs


5.2.1. Strategy - Develop and enhance system-wide flood risk management efforts

5.2.1.1. Action - Integrate information from multiple agencies into existing coastal flood risk management products and visualizations

5.2.1.2. Action - Reduce the emphasis on flood risk mitigation for individual structures in favor of larger, watershed-scale efforts utilizing resources across agencies


5.2.2. Strategy - Encourage use of a wide variety of flood risk management activities

5.2.2.1. Action - Develop incentives for coastal flood risk mitigation that extend beyond flood insurance reductions for individuals and communities

5.2.2.2. Action - Ensure that a broad range of activities are eligible for assistance under programs designed to address coastal flood risk

5.2.2.3. Action - Build flexibility al the local level into coastal flood risk management practices


5.3. Objective - Integrate flood risk management into existing practices across a broad suite of programs


5.3.1. Strategy - Further incorporate flood risk into land-use planning efforts

5.3.1.1. Action - Incorporate the need for integration of flood risk considerations in land-use planning at the federal, state, and local level into statutory frameworks

5.3.1.2. Action - Include additional elements related to coastal flood risk within community comprehensive planning efforts

5.3.1.3. Action - Establish policies that incorporate coastal flood risk resilience into redevelopment initiatives

5.3.1.4. Action - Build climate adaptation considerations into criteria and standards for future coastal development planning


5.3.2. Strategy - Include flood risk considerations in environmental decision-making processes

5.3.2.1. Action - Address potential changes in flood risk as a factor in multiple environmental permitting programs

5.3.2.2. Action - Incorporate reduction of flood risk as an ecological value when evaluating project impacts in coastal environments

5.3.2.3. Action - Establish a potential increase in flood levels as a criteria for review under environmental decision-making processes


5.3.3. Strategy - Provide a legislative basis for the broad nature of coastal flood risk management

5.3.3.1. Action - Include flood risk management measures in a broad suite of environmental regulations

5.3.3.2. Action - Establish enforceable policies within state coastal zone management programs that address flood risk considerations across multiple agencies

5.3.3.3. Action - Incorporate the link between coastal development and ecological functions such as flood risk reduction into environmental and land-use policies

5.3.3.4. Action - Formally acknowledge the unstable nature of shoreline environments within legislation to encourage compatible land-use within coastal areas


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